Sunday, November 11, 2012

The Human Species and The Genetics of Echolocation Speculated

Not long ago, I had an interesting conversation with a gentleman who explained he'd observed his own personal abilities to use the background and ambient noise to help him navigate in a dark hallway in pitch black conditions. After he did this a few times he realized that if he paid attention, he was more than proficient at it. Interestingly enough, I am not surprised. Okay let's talk.

You see, previously, I've written on this topic from my own experiences, and now that I think about it, it might even be easier in the city rather than under the canopy of trees in the forest. Why you ask? Well, due to all the background noise bouncing around off everything - white noise - as you will. Now then, consider that the human ear is shaped the way it is for a reason, through evolution. Perhaps to collect sounds, and also for reinforcement to hold it up to ensure it collects the most sound in the most optimum way.

Indeed, my acquaintance also noted that he's experienced a feeling when someone is watching him. I think we've all experienced this sensation before, generally we turn around and sure enough someone is staring right at us. So, his comments about knowing when someone is watching are validated by common observation. Still, I would suggest that this sensation also works when animals are watching you, in the forest for instance. This may have been a hunting skill or survival skill.

In fact, I have some American Indian ancestral genes, I wonder if due to 10s of 1000s of years, it might be more refined in that population, thus, those genes and that gene expression survives and thrives in me. I am unsure if ALL gene sets contain the same ability, it might stand to reason that it's similar to the unique gene expression, DNA, or gene sets in long-distance runners from Kenyan, or high IQ Nordic, Russian area genes with the Germanic mix. All this might also be associated with soil nutrients, bacteria ending up in the edible plants, compounded with high-protein diets - sure, lots of speculation, but certainly observable in populations, thus further research is justified.

Now then, Rupert Sheldrake has done a ton of research on this, some call him a crackpot as they are unable to duplicate his experiments or noting that his results are not compelling. Still those who are snipers often say that if you focus too much on your target, they look right at you, so perhaps there is something more too this? If the human brain puts out 20-35 watts, and if one watt comes off the ends of your finger tip, how much energy can your mind focus? The answer is NOT zero.

So, how much, interesting and yes, so many interesting questions - in fact, I'd bet the Aborigines in the Outback have superior skills in this regard, so much so that modern society city dwellers would say it is impossible, but they don't believe that, they simply use these skills.

Lastly, let me say that since dolphins and other mammals have sonar; why wouldn't humans have such ability at a minor level? Also the ocean is 750 times denser than air. Yes, it's too bad that all these ideas and theories are so quickly reduced to "pseudo-science" but that's what people say when they cannot measure things with their instruments.

In my personal experiences, having run in the dark on trails, sensed animals looking at me, then turning around and seeing their eyes reflect off ambient moonlight, I realize that these things are not just coincidence. Your senses are picking them up, even the slightest vibration can be sensed, and the human biosystem and brain is ultra-efficient compared to our technology, which is cumbersome, and takes a lot of power. These abilities are not psychic powers, and it's not magic in anyway.

One Person, Twelve Bodies

It is obvious that all human beings go through various cycles during their life, progressing from infant to child to adolescent to adult to senior citizen. Each of these stages builds upon previous biology and experience while evolving from one to the next. The concept that the body changes form as it ages has been around ever since early man sat around campfires and compared grandfather to a newborn baby boy. It is obvious change occurs, but no one knew how or why. They did know, even back then, that if that baby boy got fed regularly and stayed out of the mouth of large animals, chances were good that he would someday look like grandfather. Still, it was hard for early man to grasp the idea, and make much sense out of the fact that grandfather was once a tiny baby himself, and that he occupied all the various body shapes and ages in between the two extremes. That was one of life's mysteries that they just blindly accepted.

So the process of aging was known, early on, to involve noticeable and significant changes in body shape and size, hair color, skin texture, strength, weight, stamina, agility, appetite, thinking ability, hearing, vision, sleeping patterns, communication, and perhaps most notably, wellness. As the baby boy grew into adolescence, and then into manhood, and then into middle age, he no doubt suffered the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune" as Shakespeare might have described it. Perhaps he wore a few scars to prove his more stressful experiences; and most assuredly, he probably grew to know many aches and pains, loss of energy, sickness and disease, weight fluctuations, and all the other curses and afflictions that accompany growing old.

During Shakespeare's time, the average life expectancy was a mere 35 to 40 years, and people thought the body entered a new "age" roughly every five or so years. According to Shakespeare's estimation, a person only had seven bodies. He wrote about this observation in his play, As You Like It, saying that "... man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages."

The concept of seven-year body change cycles has been found in many sources including the Torah, Buddhist lore, Native American tradition, the New Testament, American folk wisdom, the philosophy of the Greek mathematician Pythagoras, traditional Chinese medicine, and the phases of the moon that change every seventh day, which influence women's reproductive rhythms and hormonal pulses.The seven-year body change cycle has its deepest roots in traditional Chinese medicine dating back to 1500 BC, which claims that natural and normal health changes occur at regular seven-year intervals in women and eight-year intervals in men. The two most significant changes in women's bodies occur at around 14 years, when menstruation begins, and around 49 years, when menstruation becomes less frequent and eventually ceases altogether. It is thought in this medical tradition as women age, much of their vital essence and nutrients are lost in their monthly periods and this transforms them eventually into old, stooped grandmothers. The consensus of understanding today, from all these various opinions, is that every seven years individuals grow a new body, but unfortunately; it is not nearly that routine, nor is it accurate.

Recent research reveals that this popular folk notion is not exactly true because, although most cells in the body do, in fact, reproduce and replace dying cells during the aging process, not all cells do. Certain cells replace themselves many times over during a seven-year period, while some cells never change at all. The truth is that different cells have different life spans and rates of regeneration, depending on the kind of tissue or fluid in which they are located. For example, white blood cells have the shortest life expectancy and only last several days, while neurons in the cerebral cortex of the brain are never replaced. Yes, there are no new neurons added to the brain after birth, and any that die during a person's life time are never replaced. Think about that next time you go out drinking. Every time you get intoxicated, you destroy irreplaceable brain cells!

Adults produce their body weight in red blood cells, white cells, and platelets every seven years, but the cells in the stomach lining only last five days. Liver cells regenerate in four to six weeks, but it takes two full years for all the cells of the liver to turnover. Tooth enamel is one of the hardest tissues in the body, and the cells that form permanent teeth, that replace the milk teeth, often last an individual their entire life. Similarly, fat cells are replaced in adults at the average rate of about ten percent each year, or in other words, humans replace all their fat cells roughly every decade.

Cardiomyocyte heart cells, on the other hand, are replaced in the body at a gradually reduced rate as a person ages. Around age 25, for example, about one percent of these cells are replaced annually. Replacement gradually slows to only about 0.5% at age 70. Even in people with much longer life spans, less than half of the cardiomyocyte cells are usually ever replaced by the body, and those that are not, have been in most people since their birth. In the heart, the cardiomyocyte cells comprise the heart muscle, but the heart is also made up of other connective tissues and other cell types that do indeed grow in size, even though some are never replaced.

Scientists from all around the world are currently studying all the major tissues and fluids of the body to determine turnover rates and the aging process as a whole. While it is obvious that skulls and brains and hearts grow larger after birth, how can it be that certain cells do not reproduce? Where then does all that extra mass come from? In the brain, even though no new neurons are replaced in the cerebral cortex as previously stated, research is still ongoing on other parts of the brain as well. It appears there are lots of other kinds of cells that do get added such as glial cells, which may possibly make up about 90% of the cells in the brain, and lest we forget, the brain is composed 78% of water.

Human hair typically grows at a rate of about half an inch per month consistently across the scalp, depending on diet, age, race, gender, and general health. Human hair goes through three stages of growth. The first stage is the anagen phase, where the hair is actively growing for a period of two to six years. During this phase, cells in the hair follicle actively divide, pushing the hair up and out of the skin layer on the scalp. The next phase is the catagen phase in which the rate of growth stops because the follicle grows dormant. The final stage is the telogen phase where the hair falls out to make way for new hair growth. Human hair has a "terminal length" which is the maximum length a hair will grow, and it varies according to the individual. Some people have a terminal length of only a few inches while other individuals may grow their hair several feet long before the hair follicle eventually dies. The average human head has roughly 150,000 single hairs on it and most hairs are in different stages of growth. If a person were to shave their head completely bald and then grow it back in one event, it would take anywhere from a few months to several years depending on their health and the personal characteristics mentioned here.

The most dramatic physical changes to the human body occur within the first two seven-year body cycles. The skeletal system takes, on average, ten years to renew as bone-dissolving and bone-rebuilding cells work in concert to constantly remodel itself over a typical life span. Bones are the primary structural component of a human body and determine the individual's stature. Generally, girls usually grow until a bone age of about 14 years and boys stop growing after a bone age of around 16 years, depending on when they reach puberty. Children grow at a rate of about 2 to 2 ½ inches per year in early childhood up until they begin puberty, at which time their growth will slow to about 1 ½ inches annually. As they reach their peak growth velocity in puberty, there is acceleration in growth to about 3 to 3 ½ inches per year for girls and 4 inches per year for boys. Growth slows down again after puberty to about 2 ½ to 3 inches per year in girls following menarche (the first period) until they reach their adult height. Girls often reach their growth spurt at puberty about two years earlier than boys, which explains why girls are often taller than boys during early adolescence.

Skin is the largest organ on the body and has the ability to constantly regenerate itself. Human skin consists of primarily two main layers: the epidermis, or surface layer, and the dermis, or deeper layer. There are several other smaller layers of skin located within these two main sections. These include the basal and the stratum spinosum layers of the epidermis, which are mostly responsible for skin regeneration. New skin cells are born all the time and rise into the epidermal layer as old skin cells die and fall away on the surface. Young skin regenerates its epidermal surface area about every two to three weeks. As a person ages, the cell turnover rate slows down, but never completely stops. Direct sunlight is a major reason for this slowdown due to several factors. The skin is comprised of collagen, which gives the skin elasticity. Sunlight lessens collagen production which makes the skin thinner and less resilient. This causes skin cells to become disorganized and malformed and ages the skin to eventually form wrinkles and spots.

The regeneration process, unfortunately, doesn't continue forever, nor always works efficiently, because it is influenced by individual lifestyle habits, choices, environmental factors, and behaviors; which all impact cell renewal. Poor lifestyle choices, harsh living conditions, along with heredity, lack of exercise, and improper diet can develop into chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, liver disease, and even numerous forms of cancer.

Organs, tissues, and systems of the body are designed by nature to serve a specific purpose, and when not treated properly, they develop disease and dysfunction which impacts the body's homeostasis or metabolic balance and cell regeneration. The liver, for example, the second largest organ in the body, performs many critical functions such as producing immune agents to fight infection; it neutralizes toxins in the blood, and filters out germs and bacteria from the bloodstream. The liver also makes proteins that regulate blood clotting, produces bile to help absorb fats, and stores glucose for when the body requires energy. No one can live long, or well, without proper liver function because it is the metabolic factory of the entire body.

So with all this diversity in tissues and fluids within the human body, and all the corresponding differences in cell regeneration rates, not to mention all the numerous individual differences in the aging process due to influences from heredity, metabolism, digestion, personality, intelligence, sleep, diet, minerals, allergies, exercise, gender, race, disease, injuries, relationships, emotions, medical care, neighborhoods, weather conditions, and immune system function, in general. How would it ever be possible to conclude that the body changes completely every seven years? There are just too many variables and influences affecting a human body to be able to chop it up into nice, crisp intervals like this. It is just not that easy.

There is no disputing the fact that an infant baby transforms into an old man or woman over the course of a life time. However, rather than look at the normal human life span as one big continuum from birth to death, or divided into decade-long intervals, it is much more interesting, and more understandable, to view it as if it were composed of twelve individual and distinct body changes, each spanning seven years. This folk-notion viewpoint is a very useful tool and just makes better sense for understanding the human metamorphosis, even though it may not be 100 percent accurate. I prefer, and advocate, the seven year cycles because they provide more milestones and age groupings which can be viewed, and studied, as distinct separate bodies.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Can Terrestrial Life Have Extraterrestrial Origin?

Crick (1973) advanced the idea that life was originally seeded on Earth from space - the idea of Panspermia. The British astronomer Fred Hoyle and Srilankan Chandra Wickramsinghe have further raised the possibility of Panspermia (1981).

The whole idea of Panspermia is the outcome of inability to satisfactorily explain origin of life on Earth despite accumulation of vast amount of data since Alexander Oparin (1924) first published his paper on this subject. He speculated that early Earth had reducing atmosphere. He considered it essential for Origin of life on Earth.

Even demonstration of origin of amino acids under physico-chemical influences by Miller - Urey (1953) has not resolved the question of spontaneous origin of life on Earth. In fact much work has been done after Miller - Urey to bridge the gap between inanimate and animate but still spontaneous transformation of inanimate into animate remains a matter of faith and belief. Till date, it is not possible to even conjecture spontaneous origin of a single polypeptide chain, what to talk about spontaneous origin of the simplest biological cell.

The gap between inanimate and animate remains as wide as ever.

Demonstration of amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases in meteorites bombarded on earth, specifically Murchison meteorite; and presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in space does not tell us anything about origin of life, whether on Earth or elsewhere. These findings only indicate feasibility of spontaneous origin of these chemicals under physico-chemical influences and nothing more.

All the work done so far demonstrates only one or more aspect of 'life like activity' but does not explain origin of life itself. Known properties of RNA are far from constituting life. Even recent analytical study by Bokov and Steinberg (2009) indicating feasibility of step-by-step evolution of ribosome at structural level beginning from a small core leaves much to be desired to constitute life.

Theory of extraterrestrial origin of terrestrial life, i.e. Theory of Panspermia may provide some relief from the question of explaining origin of life on Earth but it lands us into the question of explaining origin of life in extra-terrestrial space. So, we aren't in any better position with our original question.

Theory of extraterrestrial origin of life leads to further questions. If life was seeded from space, than how could it be found 5 Km below the surface of Earth in the form of extremophiles bacteria or 9000 meters below sea level on the ocean floor of Galapagos rift in the form of Poganophora. Barophillic Marine microbes have been found at more than 10 Km depth in Marianas Trench. Therefore, distribution of life on Earth is inconsistent with extraterrestrial origin of life.

Theory of Panspermia also raises the question of adaptation or survival of alien life under the conditions seen on Earth. All the available evidence indicates that alien life if any, must have originated under quite different environmental conditions than seen on Earth. So, how could alien life survive on Earth and evolve to the present state? Gradual adaptation over an immense period of time in line with Darwinism is more easily said than can be done.

Hence, Theory of Panspermia or Extraterrestrial Origin of life is nothing but scientific fiction created with the sole purpose, to divert attention from the question of origin of life.

Author: Dr Mahesh C. Jain is a practicing medical doctor and has written the book "Encounter of Science with Philosophy - A synthetic view". The book begins with first chapter devoted to scientifically valid concept of God and then explains cosmic phenomena right from origin of nature and universe up to origin of life and evolution of man. The book includes several chapters devoted to auxiliary concepts and social sciences as corollaries to the concept of God. This is the only book which deals with origin of nature and universe from null. Twenty-ninth chapter of the book deals with the subject matter of 'Origin of Life'.

Some Insist They Are Born Gay - Is That True?

There seems to be a bit of a debate out there that people are born gay - and the other day someone contacted our think tank with the premise and argument that it simply isn't genetically possible. Well, sure it is. This is not to say that everyone that chooses to live a gay lifestyle is gay, that might be impossible, but I would submit to you that some homosexuals are actually hormonally predisposition for a gay lifestyle.

Now then, before I explain and with full disclosure, I am straight and have no religion whatsoever, so the religious debate over this doesn't work for me, but the gentleman arguing against born gayness did have some points and his arguments do make sense. Okay so, let's talk shall we?

Personally and previously, I've also questioned this belief that some people are born gay because, well that doesn't make much sense to me, except for a few "biological" exceptions to the rule which I'd like to discuss in this article if I might. Why? Because there are actually reasons and issues which could make it possible for someone to be born with a predisposition for enjoying or even perhaps preferring a gay lifestyle or if coupled with a sex drive causing such interludes to become common place in their lives.

Thus, in this debate, the gentleman states that "one cannot be born gay" and for the most part his evolutionary arguments are sound, and genetically common sense wisdom, but only with the caveats and statement of exceptions - perhaps even less than 1%. Okay so, why does this happen in human populations? Well, we are screwing around with birth control, hormones, steroids, and synthetic Western drugs, etc. might be one reason - and we know it is not totally uncommon, it's even in the historical written human record.

Perhaps, you've heard of hermaphrodite? That is one exception. Then there is another issue with regards to siblings (male) who were born after others, perhaps 3rd, 4th, or 5th born male or more due to the lining thinning in the uterus of the mother. There are also drugs mothers have taken, legal or otherwise, diets, illness which can or might have been the cause of this. This disallows the fetus what it needs to properly develop, therefore those babies could be again; predisposed and have hormonal deficiencies or other issues. There is real science to back up those statements, and it isn't a secret. Please consider all this and think on it.

Monday, September 10, 2012

What Evolution Is

The Theory of Evolution began with Charles Darwin and his book, Origin of Species. Interestingly, he did not conclude that evolution began billions of years ago in a chance combination of just the right chemicals. He simply observed that many species were similar enough that they appeared to come from a common ancestor. Despite its "evolution" into what it is today, it has become the default scientific explanation of the origin of life.

To understand evolution, one must understand the difference between the origin of life and the tiny changes that we do see happen and are clearly happening. The origin of life is thought to have taken place billions of years ago when the earth was rather young and was bathed in water and a plethora of simple molecules that included carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, chlorine, etc. In other words, the ingredients of life. It is believed that with the aid of energy from the sun, these chemicals combined in various combinations and every once in a while, or maybe just once, the one in a million chance (so to speak) would cause a combination that could be classified as primitive life giving molecules. Eventually these combined to make more complex molecules until they formed into what would be considered a very simple cell of come sort.

Now of course it is thought that even basic molecules were very uncommon, and the more complex they became the lesser and lesser chance they had of forming, but that the one in a billion billion billion billion, etc. ended up as a cell. Of course this took place over millions of years, it is not supposed to have happened in a short time. However, for some random reason, a tiny fraction, or perhaps even just one of these few primitive cells, through pure chance, happened to have the ability to divide, which it began doing. Soon there were lots of these cells and as they filled the ocean, natural selection began to take effect and most of them died off, but every once in a while, one would have a mutation that allowed it to adapt a little better and therefore reproduce.

It is this natural selection that we see every day. We know for example that wolves were the original ancestors of dogs. This is an example of evolution, just evolution that humans forced. Every once in a while, a wolf was a little tamer than normal and then bred to produce offspring that were also tame. Over many generations, they became what we call dogs today. There are also clear similarities between animals in different places because their environments demanded slightly different survival properties.

These distinctions are important because no one is positing that species can't change over time, but many deny that life could have come from a pool of non-living molecules purely by chance. So when you say that you don't buy into evolution, you don't usually mean that minor attributes of species cannot change over time, you mean that you don't think life originated with a pool of slime. Not understanding the difference can make it seem that you do not know what is evolution.

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Effect of Heavy Metal Cadmium on Growth and Yield of Pigeonpea


Pigeonpeas are an important legume crop of rainfed agriculture in the semiarid tropics. The Indian subcontinent, eastern Africa and Central America are the world's three main pigeon pea-producing regions. Pigeonpeas are cultivated in more than 25 tropical and subtropical countries

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) is an important legume crop of rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid tropics. The Indian subcontinent, eastern Africa and Central America are the world's three main pigeon pea-producing regions.

The growth and yield of Pigeonpea is affected by heavy metal Cadmium. The uptake of Cadmium by the roots of Pigeonpea is affected by numerous plant and soil factors like Cadmium concentration in the rooting medium, Cadmium availability, Plant species and Plant age.

Selection of the Variety and Raising of the Crop:

The seeds of UPAS-120 variety of Pigeonpea were raised in earthen pots in a naturally lit net house. The pots were lined with polyethylene bags and filled each with washed river sand. Four seeds of Pigeonpea per pot were sown approximately at a uniform depth and distance. Before sowing, the seeds were surface sterilised and inoculated with suitable rhizobium culture. Thirty days after sowing (DAS), the plants were thinned to two per pot. The pots were supplied with tap water as and when required. The nitrogen free solution was supplied to each pot at weekly intervals.


Sampling was done at 7-8 days intervals starting from 30 days after sowing (DAS) of the crop till its maturity. Eight plants from each treatment were used at each sampling. Two plants constituted one replicate.

Growth observations:

The plants were uprooted and separated into different parts, i.e. stem, leaves, roots, nodules, flowers, buds, pod walls and seeds. Following growth parameters were recorded -

The fresh and dry weight.
The dry weight of abscissed leaves.
Plant height.
Leaf area.
Results and Discussions:

In comparison with control treatment, the major morphological changes that occurred in cadmium treatment plants were, the yellowing of leaves and their subsequent absicission, browning and bending of stem, swelling at the base of stem, increase in the secondary branches, early flowering, more leaves per plant, smaller leaves, fewer pods, fewer seeds per pod and smaller seeds.

The plant height was reduced with both the cadmium levels i.e. 3mM and 6mM, but the reduction was significant only with 6mM Cd. With 3mM Cd, there was no significant reduction upto 53 days after sowing (DAS). In control and 6mM Cd treatments, the maximum height was attained at 97 DAS.

The total leaf area was reduced at all the stages of plant growth. In control, the leaf area was maximum at 97 DAS, whereas in Cd treated plants, it was maximum at 111 DAS. There after, the reduction was maximum with 6mM Cd due to leaf senescence and abscission.

Cadmium drastically reduced the fresh weight of all plant organs at all stages of plant growth. The fresh weight of leaves and stem increased upto 97 DAS in control and decreased there after.

The fresh weight of flowers, pod walls and seeds was also reduced by both the levels of cadmium, reduction being more at the heigher concentration. The flowering in cadmium treated plants was observed at 75 DAS whereas in control, at four days later i.e. at 79 DAS.

The dry weight of flowers, pod walls and seeds were also reduced in cadmium treated plants. The maximum dry weight of flowers in control was observed at 111 DAS, there after there was a slow decrease. In cadmium treated plants, the maximum dry weight of flowers was attained a little earlier, i.e. at 97 DAS, there after there was a decrease in the dry weight. The dry weight of seeds and pod walls increased in both the control and the cadmium treated plants, but at every stage, the dry weight of seeds of the cadmium treated plants was less than that of the control.

The reduction in plant growth could be due to the adverse effect of the heavy metal cadmium on the various physiological and metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and partitioning of carbon and nitrogen.The deleterious effect of low concentration of cadmium was due to decrease in seed number but at higher doses, the reduction in yield was because of the formation of lesser number of seeds with smaller size.

Control plants accumulated 19.1 gm dry matter through its life span, whereas 3mM and 6mM Cd treated plants accumulated only 13.8 gm and 10.4 gm dry matter, respectively. The rate of dry matter deposition during vegetative stage was 135.8 mg per day for control, 63.9 mg per day for 3mM Cd and 40.9 mg per day for 6mM Cd. The highest rate of dry matter accumulation occurred during the 'flowering and pod setting' stage of growth being 282 mg per day, 274 mg per day and 209 mg per day for control, 3mM Cd and 6mM Cd respectively. Loss of dry matter due to leaf abscission started early in Cd treated plants and increased till harvest in both control and treated plants. This loss amounted to 7.8, 10.8 and 12.5 % fror control, 3mM and 6mM Cd respectively. Thus Cd affected both the rate of dry matter accumulation and dry matter loss from the plant.

Dry matter harvest index (HI) were reduced at higher Cd concentration (6mM Cd), however, plants with 3mM Cd exhibit a higher Harvest Index (HI) than the control.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Often Invasive Species Don't Appear to Be a Problem At First - Then All of a Sudden, Wham!

Not long ago, I had the opportunity of attending a University lecture, and the talk was given by one of the top research scientists in invasive species. He noted something that was very interesting; often invasive species might be noticed in an area for quite a while before they became a real problem. That is to say they were in an unfamiliar place, and were growing in numbers, but weren't really hurting anything, or unbalancing the local ecosystem much. They were there, sure, but no real problems at first.

However, much like bacteria colonies operate; once the colony reaches quorum they begin to get quite aggressive - the same occurs with invasive species; pushing out the existing local native species in the ecosystem. Perhaps the biggest question is why? Well, I do have some educated guesses and theories on this I'd like to submit them to you if I might.

It seems when the colonists came to the New World, they were not much problem for the local native Indians except maybe eating the corn seeds to survive that the Indians had saved to plant the next season. Other than that, it turns out both groups became friends, working together, helping one another survive. Perhaps you recall the feasts they had at Plymouth Rock area, later this tradition turned into what we know is Thanksgiving.

However, as the colonists grew in numbers, and more people came over, eventually the new settlers took over. Now then, consider bad bacteria in the body, it often just hangs out, growing its numbers, but not bothering to attack the system, or the good bacteria. However, all of a sudden it seems as if they activate and go after the host. One might ask; why they do this if they are living fairly comfortably inside of that nice new ecosystem?

Now then, also consider Locust, they don't seem to swarm until there are too many of them eating up the vegetation, and then one day they all get really aggressive and go on a rampage. In that case eat up everything in sight, for miles in fact on their journey.

It seems that from small to large, from bacteria to insects to mammals invasive species have similar characteristics when they find themselves in a new domain, new area, or thrust into a new ecosystem. It seems to me that we could study charts and immigration patterns of humans around the planet, or bacteria in the body, and come up with nice mathematical modeling which would help us study the spread of invasive species; for us to get a better understanding. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this and think on it.